What is Communication?

Communication is the process of transmission of information between two or more entities. It is the exchange of information whether in humans, other living beings and non-living things such as computers. Humans communicate mainly in two forms verbal and non-verbal. Verbal communication includes exchange of information or message in linguistic form, it includes spoken words, written message and sign language, and language can be French, Italian, German, Hindi, English etc.

Nonverbal communication excludes linguistic system. It includes body language, facial expressions, touch, tone of voice etc. The information that is transferred in communication is nothing but thoughts, ideas, beliefs, feelings of one person it wants to share with another person. To sum up, communication is the process of transfer of information from a sender to receiver through a medium such as sound, written signs, bodily movements, electricity.

History of Communication-

Human communication has a long history traced back then in the form of cave paintings, a form of rock art to the modern world communication like internet.

Prehistoric Communication-When humans had no idea about communication language, specific body movements, facial expressions and cave paintings (the oldest known symbols) were the first symbols found in human history created for the purpose of communication.

The oldest known cave painting dates to around 30,000 BC.

Petroglyphs- Petroglyphs were the images created on the solid rock surface by removing a part of a rock surface by incising, carving, basically a form of rock art.

Petroglyphs are hypothesized that they were used for cultural and religious significance. Some of the petroglyphs tell stories, maps and representing symbols talking about the time and distance travelled along those stories.

Pictograms- Pictograms were pictures and images created on stone based on a photograph which resembled what they signify, or these were symbols representing an activity by illustration.

It is a form of proto writing in which ideas are transmitted through drawing.

Ideograms- Pictograms evolved into ideograms. Ideograms were the graphical symbols that represent an idea. Ideograms could represent the more precise and correct meanings.

Early Writing - The history of writing and writing systems is considered to have started from 3400 to 3200 BCE. Writing systems and techniques significantly improved the communication of humans. The oldest known profs of early human writings are the Indus Scripts from the Indus Valley civilization, cuneiforms found in Mesopotamia and hieroglyphics from ancient Egyptian monuments.

The Chines scripts may come into exitance around 16th century BCE In Shang dynasty.

The invention of Printing Press- Printing press was a Mechanical device Created by Johannes Gutenberg around 1440s. The printing press began the printing revolution.

Hand mold and the moveable type printing press invented by Gutenberg reduced the overall cost of the printing of European documents and books published at that time.

The invention of the Telegraph and Morse Code- Telegraph was the first electrical telecommunication system. It was used to send message to long distances using electricity and the text message was encoded into two different signal durations, called dots and dashes, or dits and dahs. The concept of morse code is still used today. Electrical telegraphs were used to send urgent messages. Telegraphs were used in 1840s to 20th century. Telegraph allowed instantaneous and long-distance communication through electrical signals.

Telephone Invention by Alexender Graham Bell– When the telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1875 the whole world communication systems were revolutionized. On March 7, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell successfully received a patent for the telephone.

It was the best invention for real time communication for long distance communications.

Birth of Radio Communication System and Television- Communication via radio waves become possible after the invention of radio by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895. Radio waves are basically electromagnetic waves ranging from 30 Hz to 300 GHz. Radio waves (information or carrier signals) are modulated into modulating signals by varying the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal using a modulator. These signals are transmitted by the transmitter from the sender side. When these signals are reached to the receiver side, the receiver detects them. After detection these signals are demodulated by the demodulator back into original information signal. These radio signals were broadcasted by various broadcasting stations to radios and televisions directly to the houses of public in mass scale for educational and entertainment purpose.

Internet- The internet and its use changed the whole communication game. The Internet is a global system of millions of computers connected to each other thought some form of internet protocols i.e. TCP/IP for communication.

The Internet is formed using lots of different technologies and devices. It is hard to give the credit of internet invention to a one person or one organization. It was the combined work of different people and different organizations. But often Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn are credited as the fathers and inventors of the internet.

Thus, communication has evolved and changed as time has passed by. Communication technologies had a huge impact on that change, and how people have changed the way they communicate now as compared to past centuries.