What Is Computer?



Introduction- Computer is a very familiar electronic device and everyone can recognize that easily. It is a very intelligent machine which performs every task very fast and accurately. Computers are used in various fields such as for education in schools and colleges, banking, super stores, manufacturing units, railway stations at home etc. It can be used for very simple tasks like making a word document as well as designing complex weapons for military wars. We live in an era which is totally driven by computers.
Different new fields have been coined by using computers such as artificial intelligence (A.I.). machine learning (M.L.), data science etc.

Basic knowledge of computers is necessary for everyone. A person who uses a computer and knows about it will always be ahead of the person who doesn't. A person needs to use the computer to excel in his/her respective field. One computer is connected to another and soon which in totality connects the whole world.

Definition of Computer- It is an electronic machine. It is used to process, store and retrieve data. A person gives commands to the computer as input and the computer works according to the commands given. After processing the commands electronically, it generates the out in a desired format. Operations performed by the computer within itself are very fast and accurate always.

A computer can be divided int two parts
Hardware
Software


Hardware- Hardware is the physical structure that a person can see and touch. Mouse, monitor, CPU, keyboard are hardware. It also includes all the internal parts of a computer such as processor and memory.

Software- Software is the set of instructions or programs that runs on computer hardware. A person cannot touch the software but can only see on monitor screen. Operating systems used for user interface are just software such as Apple macOS, Microsoft windows, Google's android OS etc.

The computer performs all its tasks in 0s and 1s or ON and OFF from the different PCB boards and circuits on them. And different electronic components work together to perform different tasks. A computer is an electronic device, so it works on the DC power supply.

Computer devices can be categorized into input and output devices.

Input Devices- Device which is used to give the inputs to the computer to perform specific tasks is known as input device; such as keyboard, mouse, microphone etc.

Output Devices- An output device shows the result after processing in a human readable form such as monitor, speaker, printer etc.

Parts of a basic computer are as follows.
Monitor
Keyboard
Mouse
C.P.U.
Speakers
Printer


1. Monitor- It is the output device which shows the output in human readable form. It displays all forms of images, pictures, texts on a two-dimensional screen.


Monitor looks like a television, but it is different. Monitors have a high resolution to display small letters and complex images accurately. Graphical images on the monitor screen are made from the tiny pixels inside the screen. Pixels are the small dots or squares that make up an image on a computer screen. Every individual pixel is composed of red, green, and blue subpixels.

Different types of monitors are made shown as following-
Cathode Ray Tube Monitors
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Monitors
LED (Light Emitting Diode) Monitors
OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) Monitors

2. Keyboard- It is used to give inputs to the computer, so it stands in the input device category. A keyboard has 104 keys. Keyboard can type symbols, numbers, words. The primary function of a keyboard is to enter text.


A person can navigate around on a computer without using a mouse. It is also used to access programs quickly using different shortcut keys.

3. Mouse- It is also an input device for computers. A mouse usually has two buttons and a scroll wheel.


Mouse is used to navigate the cursor by moving across the mouse pad surface which moves cursor on the monitor screen to click on the tabs and select objects on the monitor screen. The scroll wheel is used for up and down movement of a document or a webpage.

4. C.P.U. -


When the input is recorded through the input unit then the central processing unit is responsible for processing the inputs, storing data, fetching instructions from memory, decoding the instructions and generating the required output. It is the brain of a computer. CPU contains mainly three-unit arithmetic and logical unit, control unit and memory unit.

5. Speakers – Speakers are output devices used to get output from the computer in human language by


producing sound through an oscillating transducer called a driver. A speaker can produce all forms of sounds that a person can imagine.

6. Printer- An output device which converts text and graphical output data provided by the computer into images, numbers and texts on a sheet of paper.


Different types of printers are there such as inkjet printers, laser printers, thermal printers, and 3D printers.



Applications of Computers

Communication- Computers are widely used for communication in day-to-day life for following purposes Email or electronic mail Text messaging Video and audio call News sharing and live streams Social media such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube etc.

Entertainment- Personal gaming PCs are built for highly competitive gaming and gaming live streaming.

Business- Computers are used for administration, product creation and managing employee databases on excel sheets.

Research and development- Computers are very helpful in research and development for various science and technology projects. Computers can calculate and solve large mathematical equations very fast and accurately. Computers are used to run simulations, data collection and build electronic models.

Education- If a person has a computer and knows how to use a computer and has internet connectivity then he can research and study anything of interest in this world for free. Google, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Bing etc. are a few names of search engines to search anything. Online learning is possible using a computer even if students and teachers are not in the same location.

Computers in Engineering and Manufacturing Feilds- To design things in AutoCAD and run prototypes and simulations of different instruments and objects inside a computer without even wasting the row materials.