Introduction to Internet

The Internet is a network which connects billions of computers, mobile devices, servers, and websites around the entire world. The Internet is also called “Net”. It is a network of networks. The Internet is used to communicate and share information and audio, text, video, image files. The Internet gives the ability to instantly communicate with anyone in the world from anywhere in the world.

Internet was coined by the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) of U.S. government which created the first host-to-host network in 1969. The Internet is public now and used by millions of people every day.

Billions of people use the internet nowadays for e-mail (electronic mail), live streaming, audio and video calls, social media etc. And the number of people using the internet is increasing day by day. The Internet works by using different protocols and hardware for information exchange and make sure information travels from sender to receiver and people can understand the data. The internet can be used to get information and research about any topic depending on information that ever used and exists. All it takes a computer device and access to internet. The Internet consists of the entire knowledge of humankind which is the biggest factor leading humans to a greater future. But the internet cannot provide the knowledge which humans have lost over time.


What is W.W.W. (World Wide Web)

Also called “Web” simply. It is a collection of web pages. It is basically an information system. And a network of web servers over the internet.
WWW started working at CERN in 1989 and the web was invented by the British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee. Web servers store the web pages or vast number of websites. A single server can store multiple websites. But multiple servers may be required for a single website. It depends upon the size of the website and number of webpages on the website. The web is used for information and content sharing on the internet. Information shared on www is user friendly and appealing for the common population. A webpage of a website may contain images, text documents, videos etc. Programs such as web browsers are used to access the media, documents, videos and other text related information through the web servers. Web resources accessed over the internet according to the rules of HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).


Hosting

Storing and maintaining the files of a website on a server is called hosting. Web hosting providers provide hosting.

Different types of web hosting are available according to user requirements such as-
Web hosting
Shared Web hosting
Cloud Hosting
VPN hosting etc.


Role of HTML

The commonly used language for website building and web development is HTML/CSS and JavaScript.


HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets

HTML is the standard language used for creating structure of web pages and web applications. The documents received by the browser from the web servers are in html format. The browser renders the documents received in HTML into multimedia web pages. Html received contains clues for the appearance of the document.

Html helps browser programs to display elements such as plain text, images, embedded video and audio contents and hyperlinks (embedded URLs) which provide immediate access for other web resources in a website. And CSS is used to add style and layout in websites to make it user friendly. HTML uses JavaScript to embed programs.

Java Script is a scripting language used for web development and building web applications. It allows the developers to create interactive and dynamic web pages. Most of the websites use JavaScript for user side interaction and it is also used for the execution of complex programs.


URL

Each website has its own online address called URL (Uniform Resource Locator) such as www.instagram.com, www.facebook.com etc. All web pages of a website are connected to the URL of that website.

To access a website on a browser program such as google chrome browser it requires you to fill the URL of that website in the search bar of the browser. Web information transferred on the internet using the HTTP.


Web Browser

It is an application program which is used to access information on the world wide web on the internet. It translates the web pages of a website fetched using the HTTPS into a human-readable format, to display images, text, animations, data, videos etc.


Different types of web browsers are used nowadays such as google chrome, Mozilla Firefox, apple safari, Microsoft edge etc. for web browsing and to navigate to other websites and webpages.

To access website or a webpage in a browser program such as google chrome browser simply just fill the URL of that website in the search bar of the browser. And the browser program will open the desired website. Web browsers are also used for emailing, using social media sites, online chatting, transferring files etc. Google chrome is the most popular and mostly used web browser from google with global usage share of up to 70%. Apple safari is default web browser for apple products. And Microsoft edge from Microsoft for devices using Microsoft windows.


Difference between WWW and Internet

Some people think that the internet and WWW are same and use the terms ‘WWW’ and ‘Internet’ interchangeably. But the internet and WWW are two different things.

The Internet is a network of billions of computers connected worldwide for means of communication. The Internet is used to communicate and share information and audio, text, video, image files. The Internet is used for instantaneous communication.

WWW is the network of servers over the internet. If someone wants to get some information about something. It requires you to open a web browser on your computer. The use of websites like www.google.com for information and search in a browser about the topic it called is using the WWW. As you press enter it will show lots of websites related to the search. Here browser requests a web page as a client to the servers for the information it requires.