What is Computer Security?

Computer Security, digital security or cyber security is the process of preventing computers and IT systems from criminal activity, unauthorized use, misuse, theft of users’ personal data from hackers and cyber criminals. Hackers exploit the vulnerabilities of a computer system. Hackers use different techniques to gain access and harm a computer system. But there are various preventions to protect a computer or network from being hacked as well.


Importance of Cyber Security

Technology and the use of computers is increasing day by day. Our society is becoming digital, and digitization requires computers and all their peripheral devices and various technologies.

Different sectors of modern-day society are dependent on digital infrastructures for daily tasks and uses. Such as banking, schools, colleges, health care hospitals, various businesses as well as government. These devices and technologies have lots of big advantages as well as a few risks and disadvantages. And the security issue is one of them.

In the past few years as technology grew hackers and invaders started to rob people for recognition, monetary gains, spreading misinformation and even cause wars sometimes.
So, to keep things working accordingly cyber security is very important.

Different types of systems are vulnerable to different types of cyber attacks main are as following-

1. Eavesdropping- It refers to secretly listing communication of someone without the permission as a third entity. Eavesdropping is possible when the user is connected to a network in which the traffic has no encryption and security. Communication is listened by hackers to know the password of a safe or some secret information.

2. Backdoor- Backdoor is a method in which security of a normal computer system is bypassed to get access. Backdoor attacks are used to get access to a computer system remotely. A backdoor can be installed in the software as well as the hardware of the computer. Backdoor attacks exploit the vulnerabilities of hardware and software of the computer system.

Backdoor is a malicious computer program which pretends like nothing is happening like data stealing or delivering malware in computer system.
For example, if you download something from the internet along with it few malicious files get downloaded secretly.

3. Denial of service attack or DOS- A network service or resource is jammed intentionally by attackers for the users of network is called denial of service attack. The network or machine is overloaded with requests which eventually makes the network service unavailable to users.

4. Phishing- In phishing attackers try to get confidential information of a person by luring or using creative tricks with victims. Initially attackers gain the trust of the victim by pretending to be a legitimate person or a reputed organization. Once the attackers get the personal data of the victim they get disappeared. For example, the attacker informs the victim that a suspicious activity is observed in your account and said please change the password.

5. Malware- Malware word is made after combining two words malicious + software. Malware is a code or computer program created to destroy or damage computers, used to steal personal data, slows the computer and can send emails.

Malware has the following types- Computer Viruses Trojan Horses Spyware Ransomware Worms

6. Multi-vector or polymorphic cyber-Attack- In that attack hackers use multiple entry points to get access to a computer system. As the name is self-explanatory polymorphic ‘poly’ means many and ‘morph’ means forms. Which means attacks using worms or viruses which are constantly changing to make it very hard to detect. One single attack can be performed using different methods for access i.e. DDOS (distributed denial-of-service).

7. Spoofing- It is an act of pretending as the valid entity through the falsification of data (I.P. address or username), to get access to data or spread malware in a computer system.

Different types of spoofing are following-
Email Spoofing
Caller ID spoofing
Biometric Spoofing
IP address Spoofing
MAC Spoofing etc.

8. Social Engineering- In IT and computer security social engineering refers to the act of exploiting the trust of a person to gain personal data and confidential using psychological manipulation data can be card numbers, password etc.

Practices for Computer Security

1. Use of Firewall
2. Use Strong Passwords
3. Regular Updates
4. Use Anti-Virus Software
5. Check Links Before Click
6. Always use Secure Websites
7. Beware of Suspicious Emails
8. Turn Off Bluetooth


1. Use of Firewall

A firewall provides protection to computers from cyber-attacks and malicious software. Maintains privacy and security of a computer. For example, Microsoft Windows operating system comes with a built-in firewall known as Windows Firewall. It is a type of shield or barrier between a private network and public network. Firewall filters unwanted traffic for computers or networks.

2. Use Strong Passwords

Using strong passwords can help a lot for computer security. A password which is simple and predictable is easy to crack. But a password that contains more than 8 characters and has different symbols or special characters and capital letters is very hard to crack for hackers. Changing passwords for email accounts, social media accounts and password of computer after few months is a very good practice.

3. Regular Updates

Always keep your computer system up to date. If the hardware of the computer system does not support the latest software updates change it. Keep the operating system up to date as well. Slow hardware and outdated software make it slower to response to cyber-attacks if it occurs.

4. Use Anti-Virus Software

Anti various scans the computer against viruses. It scans files in a computer and compares files to known viruses. Nowadays anti-viruses can update themselves automatically. Anti-virus gives warnings about dangerous links and websites before the click of the computer user. Paid anti-virus is more secure than free ones.

5. Check Links Before Click

A link is an easy way to trick a person. A fake link can hide itself in something which it is not. A fake link can bring you to a fake login page to get your login ID or password. A fake link can lead to a website that causes malware or viruses installed on the computer.

6. Always use Secure Websites

A secure website’s URL begins with “https” which means hypertext transfer protocol secure. A website begins with “http” URL is not secure. Which means “http” does not encrypt the information during client to server communication.

7. Beware of Suspicious Emails

Do not click on emails and links in emails you think are fraudulent. Never reply or give personal details. It could be a phishing email that appears legitimate. Links in these emails can cause harm to the computer system.

8. Turn Off Bluetooth

It is possible to hack computer device using its Bluetooth. A hacked Bluetooth can lead to the compromise of information in the devices such as emails, pictures, text etc., and gives control of device and the ability to send unwanted information to the device.